Discipline: Biological Sciences
Subcategory: Cell and Molecular Biology
Djene Keita - Texas Southern University
Triclosan is found in oral and cosmetic products such as toothpaste, mouthwash, soap, makeup, lotion, and deodorant to prevent the growth of bacteria. Although the FDA has banned the application of triclosan in soaps in September 2016, it is still legal to have it in toothpastes and mouthwashes. Performing oral hygiene rituals is the primary mode of exposure to triclosan. Toddlers are particularly prone to triclosan exposure through oral ingestion of dirt and dust. Triclosan is a lipophilic compound and as such, has the potential to bioaccumulate and persist in the body thereby causing detrimental health effects. Significant concentrations of triclosan has been detected in human fluids like urine, serum and breast milk. Does this continuous exposure to triclosan produces inflammatory responses? This was assessed by observing the pro-inflammatory signaling pathways in colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells. Cell viability was determined following 24 h treatment of triclosan. Translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) was examined in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts by Western blot analysis. The expression of apoptosis-inducing proteins were also assessed by Western blot analysis. Our results showed that triclosan induced the translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased the production of NF-kB-regulated anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL1, IL6, and TNF were also increased upon triclosan treatment. Future studies will focus on how triclosan affects the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Key References: Wallet, Mark A., et al. “Triclosan alters antimicrobial and inflammatory responses of epithelial cells.” Oral diseases 19.3 (2013): 296-302. Rogers, Rachel, et al. “Cross-talk between the Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways inhibits MEHP-induced germ cell apoptosis.” Toxicological sciences 106.2 (2008): 497-508. Shishodia, Shishir, and Bharat B. Aggarwal. “Nuclear factor-κB activation mediates cellular transformation, proliferation, invasion angiogenesis and metastasis of cancer.” Molecular Targeting and Signal Transduction. Springer US, 2004. 139-173.
Funder Acknowledgement(s): This project was supported by the National Science Foundation Research Infrastructure in Science and Engineering (HRD 1345173).
Faculty Advisor: Shishir Shishodia, firstname.lastname@example.org
Role: I performed the entire research.