Discipline: Chemistry and Chemical Sciences
Devin M. Guilloory - Jackson State University
Co-Author(s): Terriona C. Cowan and Zhao, Jackson State University, Jackson MS
Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States behind heart disease; nearly 1 of every 4 deaths is caused by cancer. According to American Cancer Society, about 1,658,370 new cases of cancer were expected to occur in 2015 with an expected death toll of about 589,430. The need for early imaging and more efficient cancer therapy is of broad and current interest within medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a favorable method for cancer screening because it offers high-detailed morphological detail on large regions of soft tissue within the body. In addition to superior detail, MRI provides more details on functionality, location, and movement of cancer cells. Photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer has been gaining notoriety in cancer therapy; as it eliminates the invasive and inconvenient side effects of current clinical therapies. PTT uses photo-absorbers that absorb near-IR wavelength (about 700-1000 nm) and can convert this light energy into heat energy. Magnetic resonance imaging works well in combination with PTT. Nanoparticles for utilization in PTT has also gained notoriety, but concern about the safety of metal nanoparticles has hinder medical inclusion. Keeping this in mind, our lab has designed a natural product nanoparticle which will be chelated with a metal for imaging guided photothermal therapy. Inorganic nanoparticles raise concern with high toxicity and low biocompatibility, factors not of concern with natural and naturally-derived products. These nanoparticles are usually not biodegradable and can remain in the body for extended periods of time, as well. Polydopamine (PDA) is a naturally derived product from eumelanin, the dark pigment found in dark hair and skin. Recent research has highlighted PDA’s strong capabilities as a photothermal agent; it has strong optical absorption and high photothermal efficiency. Essentially, PDA will provide photo-absorption for photothermal therapy; organic PDA also has low toxicity, high biocompatibility/degradability with shorter body retention. The approach to PTT guided by imaging requires a high-contrast component. Iron is a high-contrast agent that also has a lower toxicity retention than other metals used for MRI. Iron also has a shorter retention as the body is biologically able to metabolize iron. The proposal of this work is to produce a natural product polydopamine nanoparticle chelated with iron for magnetic resonance imaging-guided photothermal therapy. This combinative approach should not only diagnosis disease but also kill cancer cells at the same time.
Funder Acknowledgement(s): Jackson State University Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry; National Science Foundation (LSMAMP NSF HRD-1500317)
Faculty Advisor: Yongfeng Zhao, firstname.lastname@example.org
Role: I helped design the methodology for making the nanoparticles. I synthesized, purified, and chelated the nanoparticles.